We have many textual genres present in the language and it is very important to master each one of them, both to interpret them and to create them. The abstract is a good example, this genre presents its specific characteristics of a type of writing, is always much charged in the academic and academic environment, besides being its best ally of study, let’s see what they are.
The abstract is a text that should synthesize the main idea presented by the author so that you must condense its essential structure. To elaborate it, it is necessary, firstly, to read, decode, understand and interpret a text to have as a summary. It is also necessary to keep in mind what the purpose is for it, be it for a scholarly or academic work, or to prepare for the proofs and productions of texts of various selective processes.
We can cite 3 types of abstracts: the indicative one, which presents only the main points of the text; the informational is the one that informs about the text read exposing the data and conclusions; and the critical summary (review) is one that presents an analysis of text interpretation bringing its opinions about the text read. Here, we will talk about the indicative summary, note its main characteristics:
- a) present clearly and objectively the main ideas contained in the text;
- b) not to make judgment of opinion, because this text does not present interpretative aspects, only understanding of a text, unlike the review;
- c) respect the order of the information brought; and
- d) do not have a copy of long excerpts from the original text.
When developing this genre, it is important to follow the following steps:
- read the text to be summarized in order to understand the main ideas, identifying what happened in history, what are the characters involved, how, when and where it happened;
- mark the main terms of the text and make notes, if necessary, on each of the paragraphs of the text to be summarized;
- begin to write the abstract when you no longer have to consult the text, because it is the sign that you have understood it;
- reread the text verifying if it is clear and objective, analyzing if it is in agreement with what was read and expressed by the author.
These steps should be followed along with the application of three techniques:
1) Generalization: consists of synthesizing the elements of sentences, such as:
A sentence like: Maria ate beets, zucchini and carrots for dinner.
Can be summarized in: Maria ate vegetables at dinner
2) Erase: it is to erase the unnecessary parts for the understanding of what is essential to the text, for example:
A sentence like: Maria wins very well, she earns commission plus the right to food, health insurance and transportation worth.
It can be summarized in: Maria wins well.
3) Construction: replace a sequence of facts only by the principal, as the example:
A sentence like: Maria went to the market to buy rice, beans and mix and made a delicious lunch today.
It can be summarized in: Maria made lunch today.
Keep this recipe always in mind and you will be prepared to make a summary to organize the ideas of a text while studying a subject to prepare for exams, entrance examinations and competitions, or write a great summary when asked by the teachers of your school or college.